BackForwardInstrument:  AMSR 

Instrument details
Acronym AMSR
Full name Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer
Purpose Multi-purpose MW imagery
Short description Large antenna, 8 frequencies / 16 channels in the range 6.9 to 89 GHz, window and absorption-band channels [see detailed characteristics below]
Background New development
Scanning Technique Conical: 55° zenith angle; swath: 1600 km - Scan rate: 40 scan/min = 10 km/scan
Resolution Changing with frequency, consistent with an antenna diameter of 2 m
Coverage / Cycle Global coverage once/day
Mass 320 kg Power 400 W Data Rate 130 kbps

 

Providing Agency JAXA
Instrument Maturity Flown on an R&D satellite
Utilization Period: 2003 to 2003-10-25
Last update: 2012-09-05
Detailed characteristics
Central frequency (GHz) Bandwidth (MHz) Polarisations NEΔT IFOV Pixel
6.925 350 V, H 0.3 K 40x70 km 50x50 km
10.65 100 V, H 0.7 K 26x46 km 50x50 km
18.7 200 V, H 0.7 K 15x26 km 25x25 km
23.8 400 V, H 0.6 K 12x20 km 25x25 km
36.5 1000 V, H 0.7 K 7.6x13 km 15x15 km
50.2 200 V, H 1.8 K 5.5x9.6 km 10x10 km
53.8 400 V, H 1.6 K 5.2x9.0 km 10x10 km
89.0 3000 V, H 1.2 K 3.1x5.4 km 5x5 km
Satellites this instrument is flying on

Note: a red tag indicates satellites no longer operational, a green tag indicates operational satellites, a blue tag indicates future satellites

Instrument classification
  • Earth observation instrument
  • Passive microwave radiometer
  • Conical scanning microwave radiometer
Mission objectives
Primary mission objectives
  • Precipitation intensity at surface (liquid or solid)
  • Sea surface temperature
  • Sea-ice cover
  • Wind speed (near surface)
Secondary mission objectives
  • Biomass
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Tentative Evaluation of Measurements

The following list indicates which measurements can typically be retrieved from this category of instrument. To see a full Gap Analysis by Variable, click on the respective variable.

Note: table can be sorted by clicking on the column headers
VariableRelevance for measuring this variableOperational limitationsExplanation
Accumulated precipitation (over 24 h)2 - very highPoor time sampling.. Time sampling to be interpolated by GEO.MW channels around 10, 19, 23, 37 and 90 GHz and in 54 GHz band, with high spatial resolution
Atmospheric temperature3 - highVery coarse vertical resolution.54 GHz band. Nearly all-weather sounding
Biomass3 - highIndex only.. Coarse spatial resolution.Derived from differential effect of vegetation across MW frequencies around 7, 10 and 19 GHz
Cloud liquid water (CLW)3 - highNo specific limitation.MW channels around 37 and 90 GHz
Cloud liquid water (CLW) total column3 - highNo specific limitation.MW channels around 37 and 90 GHz
Freezing level height in clouds4 - fairNo specific limitation.MW channels in the 54 GHz band. Inference from the temperature profile
Land surface temperature5 - marginalCoarse spatial resolution.MW channels around 7 and 10 GHz
Long-wave Earth surface emissivity3 - highLong time series needed.MW channels around 7, 10, 19, 37 and 90 GHz. Emissivity across this MW range inferred by statistical analysis
Melting layer depth in clouds4 - fairNo specific limitation.MW channels in the 54 GHz band. Inference from the temperature profile
Precipitation intensity at surface (liquid or solid)2 - very highNo specific limitation.MW channels around 10, 19, 23, 37 and 90 GHz, and in 54 GHz band (for atmospheric temperature). To cover sea and land, heavy and light precipitation. High spatial resolution consistent with the scale of precipitation
Sea surface temperature3 - highNo specific limitation.MW channels around 7 and 10 GHz
Sea-ice cover1 - primaryNo specific limitation.MW channels around 7, 10, 19, 37 and 90 GHz, with high spatial resolution for accurate contour detection
Sea-ice type4 - fairNo specific limitation.MW channels around 7, 10, 19, 37 and 90 GHz. Type interpreted as age/roughness
Snow cover2 - very highCoarse spatial resolution.MW channels around 19, 37 and 90 GHz. Higher frequencies less sensitive to emissivity from ground under snow . High resolution closer to the scale of snow fields
Snow status (wet/dry)1 - primaryCoarse spatial resolution.MW channels around 19, 37 and 90 GHz. Higher frequencies less sensitive to emissivity from ground under snow. High resolution closer to the scale of snow fields
Snow water equivalent1 - primaryCoarse spatial resolution.. Ground stations network needed.MW channels around 19, 37 and 90 GHz. Higher frequencies less sensitive to emissivity from ground under snow. High resolution closer to the scale of snow fields
Soil moisture (in the roots region)4 - fairCoarse spatial resolution.. Affected by vegetation.MW channels around 7 GHz. Assimilation process required
Soil moisture at surface3 - highCoarse spatial resolution.. Affected by vegetation.MW channels around 7 and 10 GHz
Integrated Water Vapour (IWV)1 - primaryNo specific limitation.Use of water vapour band around 23 GHz with dual polarisation. High resolution useful for tomography
Wind speed (near surface)2 - very highOver sea only.MW channels around 7, 10, 19 and 37 GHz