BackForwardInstrument:  IMG 

Instrument details
Acronym IMG
Full name Interferometric Monitor for Greenhouse gases
Purpose Atmospheric chemistry. Tracked species: CH4, CO2, H2O, N2O and O3
Short description IR interferometer, spectral range 3.3-14.0 µm (714-3030 cm-1) split in 3 bands [see detailed characteristics below]
Background New development
Scanning Technique Nadir viewing. Along-track sampling at 13 s intervals (86 km)
Resolution 8 km
Coverage / Cycle Global in 1.5 months for cells of 100 km side (duty cycle: 3 days each 13 days)
Mass 130 kg Power 150 W Data Rate 882 kbps

 

Providing Agency METI
Instrument Maturity Flown on an R&D satellite
Utilization Period: 1996 to 1997-06-30
Last update: 2018-03-19
Detailed characteristics

Spectral range (µm)

Spectral range (cm-1)

Spectral resolution (apodised)

NESR

5.0-14.0 µm

714-2000 cm-1

0.1 cm-1

0.230 mW·m-2·cm

4.3-5.0 µm

2000-2325 cm-1

0.25 cm-1

0.020 mW·m-2·cm

3.3-4.3 µm

2325-3030 cm-1

0.15 cm-1

0.014 mW·m-2·cm

Satellites this instrument is flying on

Note: a red tag indicates satellites no longer operational, a green tag indicates operational satellites, a blue tag indicates future satellites

Instrument classification
  • Earth observation instrument
  • Passive optical radiometer or spectrometer
  • Cross-nadir infrared sounder, possibly including VIS channels
Mission objectives
Primary mission objectives
  • C2H2 Mole Fraction
  • C2H6 Mole Fraction
  • CFC-11 Mole Fraction
  • CFC-12 Mole Fraction
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Tentative Evaluation of Measurements

The following list indicates which measurements can typically be retrieved from this category of instrument. To see a full Gap Analysis by Variable, click on the respective variable.

Note: table can be sorted by clicking on the column headers
VariableRelevance for measuring this variableOperational limitationsExplanation
Atmospheric temperature2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry in the CO2 4.3 and 15 micrometer bands
Cloud top height2 - very highDiscontinuous coverage.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry in window and water vapour band (for emissivity) to estimate cloud top height from its temperature
Height of the tropopause4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. Height of tropopause from temperature profile
Upward spectral radiance at TOA2 - very highMissing all Short-waves.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry resolving water vapour lines in the bands around 6.3 micrometers and 11 to 15 micrometers; and other greenhouse gases
Height of the top of PBL4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry. Height of PBL top from temperature profile
Integrated Water Vapour (IWV)2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry in the bands around 6.3 and above 11 micrometers
Temperature of the tropopause2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. Tropopause temperature from temperature profile
Specific humidity1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry in the water vapour band around 6.3 micrometers
Sea surface temperature1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry (inclusive of several narrow-bandwidth windows and absorption bands for atmospheric corrections)
Cloud cover3 - highDiscontinuous coverage.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry
Cloud top temperature1 - primaryDiscontinuous coverage.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry in window and water vapour band (for emissivity)
Cloud type4 - fairDiscontinuous coverage.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry
Upward long-wave irradiance at TOA3 - highSpectral interpolation needed.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry in the windows regions around 3.7 and 11 micrometers, and in water vapour and CO2 bands around 4,3, 6.3 and 15 micrometers
Downward long-wave irradiance at Earth surface1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Highly indirect.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry including water vapour and CO2 bands
Upward long-wave irradiance at Earth surface1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Highly indirect.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR channels in windows around 3.7 and 11 micrometers, and in water vapour and CO2 bands around 4,3, 6.3 and 15 micrometers
Long-wave Earth surface emissivity1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Long time series needed.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry measuring land temperature in many windows. Emissivity inferred by statistical analysis
Land surface temperature2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Coarse spatial resolution.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry (inclusive of several narrow-bandwidth windows and absorption bands for atmospheric corrections)
C2H2 Mole Fraction1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. C2H2 lines around 7.5 and 13.7 micrometers
C2H6 Mole Fraction3 - highCloud sensitive.. Coarse vertical resolution.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. C2H6 lines around 12 micrometers
CFC-11 Mole Fraction1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Coarse vertical resolution.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. CFC-11 lines around 9.2 and 11.7 micrometers
CFC-12 Mole Fraction1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. CFC-12 lines around 8.8 and 10.8 micrometers
HC3Br Mole Fraction1 - primaryAlong-track only.. Cloud sensitive.Spectrometry in the HC3Br bands around 6.7, 7.9 and 10.5 micrometers
HCFC-22 Mole Fraction1 - primaryAlong-track only.. Cloud sensitive.TIR spectrometry. HCFC-22 lines around 7.6, 9.0 and 12.3 micrometers
SF6 Mole Fraction1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. SF6 lines around 10.5 micrometers
ClONO2 Mole Fraction1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry. ClONO2 lines around 5.7, 7.7 and 12.5 micrometers
COS Mole Fraction2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry. COS lines around 4.8 and 11.6 micrometers
HNO3 Mole Fraction1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Coarse vertical resolution.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry. HNO3 lines around 5.9, 7.6 and 11.3 micrometers
1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry. N2O5 lines around 5.8 and 8 micrometers
O3 Mole Fraction3 - highCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. Ozone band around 9.7 micrometers
O3 Total Column3 - highCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR channel(s). Ozone lines in band around 9.7 micrometers
PAN Mole Fraction1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry. PAN lines around 5.7, 8.6 and 12.5 micrometers
CH4 Mole Fraction2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry. CH4 lines around 3.4, 4.3 and 7.7 micrometers
CO2 Mole Fraction2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry. CO2 lines around 4.3 and 15 micrometers
CO Mole Fraction3 - highCloud sensitive.. Coarse vertical resolution.. Along-track only.MWIR spectrometry. CO lines around 4.6 micrometers
H2O Mole Fraction1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR/TIR spectrometry in a range centred on 6.3 micrometers
N2O Mole Fraction2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectrometry. N2O lines around 4.5 and 7.7 micrometers
NO Mole Fraction1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.MWIR spectrometry. NO lines around 5.3 micrometers
NO2 Mole Fraction3 - highCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. NO2 lines around 6.1 micrometers
NO2 Total Column1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. NO2 lines around 6.1 micrometers
PSC occurrence2 - very highCoarse vertical resolution.. Along-track only.MWIR and TIR spectroscopy
SO2 Mole Fraction1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. SO2 lines around 7.3 and 8.6 micrometers
SO2 Total Column1 - primaryCloud sensitive.. Along-track only.TIR spectrometry. SO2 lines around 7.3 and 8.6 micrometers