BackForwardInstrument:  MW sounder 

Instrument details
Acronym MW sounder
Full name Microwave sounder
Purpose To provide frequent all-weather temperature and humidity profiles in the tropical zone
Short description 12 MW channels total, split into 1) 7 channels in the O2 118 GHz band, 2) 3 channels in the H2O 183 GHz band, 3) 2 window channel, at 90 and 206 GHz, respectively.[see details below]
Background New development
Scanning Technique Conical, at 30 RPM, swath about 1200 km
Resolution Ranging from 26 to 51 km, depending on frequency (see table)
Coverage / Cycle Limited by the satellite low inclination (30°). Average cycle by 12 satellites in 3 orbital planes: 30 min
Mass Power Data Rate

 

Providing Agency NASA
Instrument Maturity Flown on an R&D satellite
Utilization Period: ≥2020 to ≥2025
Last update: 2019-11-14
Detailed characteristics

No.

Central frequency

Bandwidth

Effective resolution across scan

NE∆T

1

91.655 ± 1.4 GHz

1000 MHz

50.7 km

0.95 K

2

114.50 GHz

1000 MHz

41.2 km

0.55 K

3

115.95 GHz

800 MHz

41.2 km

0.60 K

4

116.65 GHz

600 MHz

41.2 km

0.70 K

5

117.25 GHz

600 MHz

41.2 km

0.70 K

6

117.80 GHz

500 MHz

41.2 km

0.75 K

7

118.24 GHz

380 MHz

41.2 km

0.85 K

8

118.58 GHz

300 MHz

41.2 km

1.00 K

9

184.41 GHz

2000 MHz

27.5 km

0.60 K

10

186.51 GHz

2000 MHz

27.5 km

0.60 K

11

190.31 GHz

2000 MHz

27.5 km

0.60 K

12

204.8 GHz

2000 MHz

26.0 km

0.60 K

Satellites this instrument is flying on

Note: a red tag indicates satellites no longer operational, a green tag indicates operational satellites, a blue tag indicates future satellites

Instrument classification
  • Earth observation instrument
  • Passive microwave radiometer
  • Conical scanning microwave radiometer
Mission objectives
Primary mission objectives
  • Precipitation intensity at surface (solid)
Secondary mission objectives
  • Atmospheric temperature
  • Integrated Water Vapour (IWV)
  • Specific humidity
Opportunity objectives
  • Accumulated precipitation (over 24 h)
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Tentative Evaluation of Measurements

The following list indicates which measurements can typically be retrieved from this category of instrument. To see a full Gap Analysis by Variable, click on the respective variable.

Note: table can be sorted by clicking on the column headers
VariableRelevance for measuring this variableOperational limitationsExplanation
Accumulated precipitation (over 24 h)4 - fairNo specific limitation.MW channels in 118 and 183 GHz bands
Atmospheric temperature2 - very highCoarse vertical resolution.Many MW channels in the 118 GHz band. Nearly all-weather sounding
Precipitation intensity at surface (liquid or solid)4 - fairNo specific limitation.MW channels in the 118 and 183 GHz bands. Suitable for solid and, to a less extent, liquid precipitation over sea and land, insensitive to surface emissivity
Specific humidity3 - highCoarse vertical resolution.MW channels in the 183 GHz band
Integrated Water Vapour (IWV)2 - very highNo specific limitation.MW channels in the water vapour band around 183 GHz