Gap analyses by variable or by type of mission

Please select either a variable or a type of mission to display a time chart of satellite instruments having the potential to provide the corresponding measurements. The selection is based on design characteristics (Expert analysis) or declared mission objectives (Simplified analysis). Such a preliminary analysis does not replace a detailed assessment of the actual instrument performances, data availability, and quality of derived environmental data records against specific user requirements.

Note: The chart can be sorted by clicking on the header columns and filtered by instrument properties when applicable. Select the period of interest with the cursor at the bottom of the chart. Future missions which are not firmly planned are shaded with stripes. A warning icon (Important note) indicates degraded satellite: hover over the icon for details. The chart is followed by a table of all potentially relevant instruments.

Select a variable

or select a type of mission

Analysis
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In "Simplified" mode, the results in the analysis are calculated by looking at each instrument's mission objectives: for each instrument we keep track of what the primary, secondary, and opportunity mission objectives are. These mission objectives indicate that an instrument is primarily envisioned to measure variable X, Y and Z, that variables A, B and C are its secondary objective, and that it may offer the opportunity to measure variables I and II although it is not optimized for that. The simplified Gap analysis produces a timeline based on this information. The simplified Gap analysis is only available for analyzing variables, not for missions.
In "Expert system" mode, the results in the analysis are calculated with an expert system. Internally, OSCAR works with a large set of 1700 rules that determine whether or not an instrument is capable of measuring a given variable, and to what degree. When you select "Expert system", the Gap analysis is performed based on this large set of rules.
Measurement timeline for Geoid

Definition: Equipotential surface which would coincide exactly with the mean ocean surface of the Earth, if the oceans were in equilibrium, at rest, and extended through the continents (such as with very narrow channels) - Physical unit: [ cm ] - Accuracy unit: [ cm ].

Hint: Move around in the timeline by scrolling up, down, left or right.

Found 195 results

Instrument NRT? Relevance Satellite Orbit
1965
1966
1967
1968
1969
1970
1971
1972
1973
1974
1975
1976
1977
1978
1979
1980
1981
1982
1983
1984
1985
1986
1987
1988
1989
1990
1991
1992
1993
1994
1995
1996
1997
1998
1999
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2002
2003
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2007
2008
2009
2010
2011
2012
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
2021
2022
2023
2024
2025
2026
2027
2028
2029
2030
2031
2032
2033
2034
2035
2036
2037
2038
2039
2040
2041
2042
2043
2044
2045
2046
2047
2048
2049
2050
2051
2052
LR1 - primarySTARLETTE49.8 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
LR1 - primarySTELLA98.6 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
LRA (ASI)1 - primaryLARES-270.16 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
LRA (ASI)1 - primaryLAGEOS-1109.8 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
LRA (ASI)1 - primaryLAGEOS-252.6 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
LRA (ASI)1 - primaryLARES-169.5 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
RRA1 - primaryGFZ-151.6 °
X
XXX
X
RRA (CNES)1 - primaryDiadéme-139.9 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
RRA (CNES)1 - primaryDiadéme-239.4 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
NRA1 - primaryTOPEX-Poseidon66 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXX
X
Poseidon-21 - primaryJASON-166 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXX
X
Poseidon-31 - primaryJASON-266 °
X
XXXXXXXXXX
X
Poseidon-3BYes1 - primaryJASON-366 °
X
XXXXX
SRAL (JASON)1 - primaryJASON-CS-A66 °
X
XXXXXXX
SRAL (JASON)1 - primaryJASON-CS-B66 °XXXXXXXX
SSALT1 - primaryTOPEX-Poseidon66 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXX
X
ALT (HY-2A)2 - very highHY-2B06:00 desc
X
XXXXX
ALT (HY-2A)2 - very highHY-2C66 °XXXXXX
ALT (HY-2A)2 - very highHY-2D66 °XXXXXX
ALT (HY-2A)2 - very highHY-2E06:00 descXXXXXX
ALT (HY-2A)2 - very highHY-2F66 °XXXXXX
ALT (HY-2A)2 - very highHY-2G66 °XXXXXX
ALT (HY-2A)2 - very highHY-2A06:00 desc
X
XXXXXXXXX
ALT (SeaSat)2 - very highSeaSat108 °
X
AltiKa2 - very highSARAL05:56 asc
X
XXXXXXX
Altimeter2 - very highSWOT78 °XXXX
Altimeter (COMPIRA)2 - very highCOMPIRA51 °XXXXXX
GFO-RA2 - very highGFO108 °
X
XXXXXXXXX
X
GRA2 - very highGEOSat108 °
X
XXXX
X
RA2 - very highERS-110:30 desc
X
XXXXXXXX
X
RA2 - very highERS-210:30 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
RA-22 - very highEnvisat10:00 desc
X
XXXXXXXXX
X
SIRAL2 - very highCryoSat92 °
X
SIRALNo2 - very highCryoSat-292 °
X
XXXXXXXXXX
SRALYes2 - very highSentinel-3B10:00 desc
X
XXXXXXX
SRAL2 - very highSentinel-3C10:00 descXXXXXXXX
SRAL2 - very highSentinel-3D10:00 descXXXXXXXX
SRALYes2 - very highSentinel-3A10:00 desc
X
XXXXXXX
KaRIN2 - very highSWOT78 °XXXX
SHIOSAI2 - very highCOMPIRA51 °XXXXXX
SWIM2 - very highCFOSAT07:00 desc
X
XXXX
SWIM2 - very highCFOSAT follow-on07:00 descXXXXXX
ATLAS2 - very highICESat-294 °
X
XXXXX
GLAS2 - very highICESat94 °
X
XXXXXX
X
GEDI Lidar2 - very highISS GEDI51.6 °
X
XXXXX
MOLI lidar2 - very highISS MOLI51.6 °XXXXXX
HAIRS Important noteNo3 - highGRACE (2 sats)89 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
HAIRS Important note3 - highGRACE-FO (2 sats)89 °
X
XXXXX
SSTI3 - highGOCE06:00 asc
X
XXX
X
ACC3 - highSWARM-A87.35 °
X
XXXXXXX
ACC3 - highSWARM-C87.35 °
X
XXXXXXX
ACC3 - highSWARM-B87.75 °
X
XXXXXXX
EGG3 - highGOCE06:00 asc
X
XXX
X
STAR3 - highCHAMP87 °
X
XXXXXXXXX
X
SuperSTAR Important noteNo3 - highGRACE (2 sats)89 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
SuperSTAR Important note3 - highGRACE-FO (2 sats)89 °
X
XXXXX
AOPOD4 - fairKOMPSAT-506:00 asc
X
XXXXXXX
ARMA-MP4 - fairMeteor-MP N115:30 ascXXXXXXXX
ARMA-MP4 - fairMeteor-MP N209:30 descXXXXXXXX
BlackJack (CHAMP) Important note4 - fairCHAMP87 °
X
XXXXXXX
X
BlackJack (GRACE) Important noteNo4 - fairGRACE (2 sats)89 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
CION4 - fairCICEROTBD
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
CORISS4 - fairC/NOFS13 °
X
XXXXXX
X
GNOSYes4 - fairFY-3C10:15 desc
X
XXXXXXX
GNOSYes4 - fairFY-3D14:00 asc
X
XXXXX
GNOS-24 - fairFY-3RM-150 °XXXXXX
GNOS-24 - fairFY-3RM-250 °XXXXXX
GNOS-24 - fairFY-3E06:00 descXXXXXX
GNOS-24 - fairFY-3F10:00 descXXXXXX
GNOS-24 - fairFY-3G14:00 ascXXXXXX
GNOS-24 - fairFY-3H06:00 descXXXXXX
GOLPE4 - fairSAC-C10:20 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXXX
X
GPS/MET4 - fairOrbView-1/MicroLab70 °
X
XX
GRASYes4 - fairMetop-A09:30 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
GRASYes4 - fairMetop-B09:30 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXXX
GRAS4 - fairMetop-C09:30 desc
X
XXXXXXX
IGOR (COSMIC) Important noteNo4 - fairCOSMIC-172 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
IGOR (TacSat-2)4 - fairTacSat-240 °
X
X
IGOR (TanDEM)4 - fairTanDEM-X Important note06:00 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXX
IGOR (TerraSAR)4 - fairTerraSAR-X Important note06:00 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXX
IGOR (TerraSAR)4 - fairTSX-NG06:00 descXXXXXXXX
RO4 - fairMetop-SG-A109:30 descXXXXXXXX
RO4 - fairMetop-SG-A209:30 descXXXXXXXX
RO4 - fairMetop-SG-A309:30 descXXXXXXXX
RO4 - fairMetop-SG-B109:30 descXXXXXXXX
RO4 - fairMetop-SG-B209:30 descXXXXXXXX
RO4 - fairMetop-SG-B309:30 descXXXXXXXX
ROHPP4 - fairSEOSAR/Paz06:00 asc
X
XXXXX
ROSA Important note4 - fairSAC-D06:00 desc
X
XXX
X
ROSA Important note4 - fairMegha-Tropiques20 °
X
XXXXXXX
X
ROSA (OceanSat)No4 - fairOceanSat-211:53 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXX
STRATOS4 - fairLemur-2TBD
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
TGRS (COSMIC-2)4 - fairCOSMIC-2a24 °
X
XXXXXXX
Tri-G (GRACE-FO) Important note4 - fairGRACE-FO (2 sats)89 °
X
XXXXX
Tri-G (JASON-CS)4 - fairJASON-CS-A66 °
X
XXXXXXX
Tri-G (JASON-CS)4 - fairJASON-CS-B66 °XXXXXXXX
TRSR (Ørsted) Important noteNo4 - fairØrsted96.5 °
X
XXXXXXX
DDMI4 - fairCYGNSS (8 sats)35 °
X
XXXXX
GAP4 - fairCASSIOPE80 °
X
XXXXXXX
GPS (ESA)Yes4 - fairSentinel-3B10:00 desc
X
XXXXXXX
GPS (ESA)4 - fairSentinel-3C10:00 descXXXXXXXX
GPS (ESA)4 - fairSentinel-3D10:00 descXXXXXXXX
GPS (ESA)Yes4 - fairSentinel-3A10:00 desc
X
XXXXXXX
GPS (ESA)4 - fairSWARM-A87.35 °
X
XXXXXXX
GPS (ESA)4 - fairSMOS06:00 asc
X
XXXXXXXXXXX
GPS (ESA)4 - fairSWARM-C87.35 °
X
XXXXXXX
GPS (ESA)4 - fairSWARM-B87.75 °
X
XXXXXXX
GPS (ESA)4 - fairJASON-CS-A66 °
X
XXXXXXX
GPS (ESA)4 - fairJASON-CS-B66 °XXXXXXXX
GPS (NASA)4 - fairLandsat-410:00 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXX
GPS (NASA)4 - fairLandsat-509:45 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
GPSDR4 - fairTOPEX-Poseidon66 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXX
X
PES4 - fairIonosphere N1 & N2TBDXXXX
PES4 - fairIonosphere N3 & N4TBDXXXX
TRSR4 - fairGFO108 °
X
XXXXXXXXX
X
TRSR4 - fairICESat94 °
X
XXXXXX
X
TRSR4 - fairICESat-294 °
X
XXXXX
TRSR Important note4 - fairJASON-166 °
X
XXXXXXX
X
TRSR4 - fairJASON-266 °
X
XXXXXXXXXX
X
TRSRYes4 - fairJASON-366 °
X
XXXXX
DORISYes4 - fairSentinel-3B10:00 desc
X
XXXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairSentinel-3C10:00 descXXXXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairSentinel-3D10:00 descXXXXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairCryoSat92 °
X
DORISNo4 - fairCryoSat-292 °
X
XXXXXXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairHY-2B06:00 desc
X
XXXXX
DORIS4 - fairHY-2C66 °XXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairHY-2D66 °XXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairEnvisat10:00 desc
X
XXXXXXXXX
X
DORIS4 - fairSARAL05:56 asc
X
XXXXXXX
DORISYes4 - fairSentinel-3A10:00 desc
X
XXXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairSPOT-210:30 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
DORIS4 - fairSPOT-310:30 desc
X
XX
X
DORIS4 - fairSPOT-410:30 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
DORIS4 - fairSPOT-510:30 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXXX
X
DORIS4 - fairHY-2E06:00 descXXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairHY-2F66 °XXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairHY-2G66 °XXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairHY-2A06:00 desc
X
XXXXXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairTOPEX-Poseidon66 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXX
X
DORIS4 - fairJASON-166 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXX
X
DORIS4 - fairJASON-266 °
X
XXXXXXXXXX
X
DORISYes4 - fairJASON-366 °
X
XXXXX
DORIS4 - fairJASON-CS-A66 °
X
XXXXXXX
DORIS4 - fairJASON-CS-B66 °XXXXXXXX
PRARE4 - fairMeteor-3-682.5 °
X
X
X
PRARE Important note4 - fairERS-110:30 desc
X
PRARE Important note4 - fairERS-210:30 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXX
X
LRA (CNES)4 - fairSARAL05:56 asc
X
XXXXXXX
LRA (KARI)4 - fairSTSat-2C80 °
X
X
LRA (NASA)4 - fairHY-2B06:00 desc
X
XXXXX
LRA (NASA)4 - fairHY-2C66 °XXXXXX
LRA (NASA)4 - fairHY-2D66 °XXXXXX
LRA (NASA)4 - fairGFO108 °
X
XXXXXXXXX
X
LRA (NASA)4 - fairHY-2E06:00 descXXXXXX
LRA (NASA)4 - fairHY-2F66 °XXXXXX
LRA (NASA)4 - fairHY-2G66 °XXXXXX
LRA (NASA)4 - fairHY-2A06:00 desc
X
XXXXXXXXX
LRA (NASA)4 - fairICESat94 °
X
XXXXXX
X
LRA (NASA)4 - fairICESat-294 °
X
XXXXX
LRA (NASA)4 - fairTOPEX-Poseidon66 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXX
X
LRA (NASA)4 - fairJASON-166 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXX
X
LRA (NASA)4 - fairJASON-266 °
X
XXXXXXXXXX
X
LRA (NASA)Yes4 - fairJASON-366 °
X
XXXXX
LRA (NASA)4 - fairJASON-CS-A66 °
X
XXXXXXX
LRA (NASA)4 - fairJASON-CS-B66 °XXXXXXXX
LRR (DLR)4 - fairCHAMP87 °
X
XXXXXXXXX
X
LRR (DLR)4 - fairSEOSAR/Paz06:00 asc
X
XXXXX
LRR (DLR)4 - fairSWARM-A87.35 °
X
XXXXXXX
LRR (DLR)No4 - fairGRACE (2 sats)89 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
LRR (DLR) Important note4 - fairGRACE-FO (2 sats)89 °
X
XXXXX
LRR (DLR)4 - fairSWARM-C87.35 °
X
XXXXXXX
LRR (DLR)4 - fairSWARM-B87.75 °
X
XXXXXXX
LRR (DLR)4 - fairKOMPSAT-506:00 asc
X
XXXXXXX
LRR (ESA)Yes4 - fairSentinel-3B10:00 desc
X
XXXXXXX
LRR (ESA)4 - fairSentinel-3C10:00 descXXXXXXXX
LRR (ESA)4 - fairSentinel-3D10:00 descXXXXXXXX
LRR (ESA)4 - fairCryoSat92 °
X
LRR (ESA)No4 - fairCryoSat-292 °
X
XXXXXXXXXX
LRR (ESA)4 - fairEnvisat10:00 desc
X
XXXXXXXXX
X
LRR (ESA)4 - fairERS-110:30 desc
X
XXXXXXXX
X
LRR (ESA)4 - fairERS-210:30 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
LRR (ESA)4 - fairGOCE06:00 asc
X
XXX
X
LRR (ESA)Yes4 - fairSentinel-3A10:00 desc
X
XXXXXXX
LRR (NASA)4 - fairSeaSat108 °
X
RIS4 - fairADEOS10:30 desc
X
X
ASC5 - marginalCHAMP87 °
X
XXXXXXXXX
X
ASC Important noteNo5 - marginalØrsted96.5 °
X
XXXXXXX
IST5 - marginalSAC-C10:20 desc
X
XXXXXXXXXXXX
X
SCA (GRACE) Important noteNo5 - marginalGRACE (2 sats)89 °
X
XXXXXXXXXXXXXX
X
SCA (GRACE) Important note5 - marginalGRACE-FO (2 sats)89 °
X
XXXXX
STA5 - marginalSMOS06:00 asc
X
XXXXXXXXXXX
STR (SWARM)5 - marginalSWARM-A87.35 °
X
XXXXXXX
STR (SWARM)5 - marginalSWARM-C87.35 °
X
XXXXXXX
STR (SWARM)5 - marginalSWARM-B87.75 °
X
XXXXXXX
All instruments for measuring Geoid
Instruments Relevance Operational limitations
LR1 - primaryGround stations network needed.. Long time series needed..
LRA (ASI)1 - primaryGround stations network needed.. Long time series needed..
RRA1 - primaryGround stations network needed.. Long time series needed..
RRA (CNES)1 - primaryGround stations network needed.. Long time series needed..
NRA1 - primaryLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
Poseidon-21 - primaryLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
Poseidon-31 - primaryLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
Poseidon-3B1 - primaryLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
SRAL (JASON)1 - primaryLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
SSALT1 - primaryLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
ALT (HY-2A)2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
ALT (SeaSat)2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
AltiKa2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
Altimeter2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
Altimeter (COMPIRA)2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
GFO-RA2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
GRA2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
RA2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
RA-22 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
SIRAL2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
SRAL2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
KaRIN2 - very highInfrequent coverage.. Long time series needed..
SHIOSAI2 - very highInfrequent coverage.. Long time series needed..
SWIM2 - very highInfrequent coverage.. Long time series needed..
ATLAS2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
GLAS2 - very highLong time series needed.. Along-track only..
GEDI Lidar2 - very highLong time series needed..
MOLI lidar2 - very highLong time series needed..
VCL2 - very highLong time series needed..
HAIRS3 - highHighly indirect..
SSTI3 - highHighly indirect..
ACC3 - highHighly indirect..
EGG3 - highHighly indirect..
STAR3 - highHighly indirect..
SuperSTAR3 - highHighly indirect..
AOPOD4 - fairHighly indirect..
ARMA-MP4 - fairHighly indirect..
BlackJack (CHAMP)4 - fairHighly indirect..
BlackJack (GRACE)4 - fairHighly indirect..
CION4 - fairHighly indirect..
CORISS4 - fairHighly indirect..
GNOS4 - fairHighly indirect..
GNOS-24 - fairHighly indirect..
GNSS-RO4 - fairHighly indirect..
GOLPE4 - fairHighly indirect..
GPS/MET4 - fairHighly indirect..
GRAS4 - fairHighly indirect..
IGOR (COSMIC)4 - fairHighly indirect..
IGOR (TacSat-2)4 - fairHighly indirect..
IGOR (TanDEM)4 - fairHighly indirect..
IGOR (TerraSAR)4 - fairHighly indirect..
Radiomet4 - fairHighly indirect..
RO4 - fairHighly indirect..
ROHPP4 - fairHighly indirect..
ROSA4 - fairHighly indirect..
ROSA (OceanSat)4 - fairHighly indirect..
STRATOS4 - fairHighly indirect..
TGRS (COSMIC-2)4 - fairHighly indirect..
Tri-G (GRACE-FO)4 - fairHighly indirect..
Tri-G (JASON-CS)4 - fairHighly indirect..
TRSR (Ørsted)4 - fairHighly indirect..
DDMI4 - fairHighly indirect..
GAP4 - fairHighly indirect..
GPS (ESA)4 - fairHighly indirect..
GPS (NASA)4 - fairHighly indirect..
GPSDR4 - fairHighly indirect..
PES4 - fairHighly indirect..
TRSR4 - fairHighly indirect..
DORIS4 - fairHighly indirect.. Ground stations network needed..
PRARE4 - fairHighly indirect.. Ground stations network needed..
LRA (CNES)4 - fairGround stations network needed.. Long time series needed..
LRA (KARI)4 - fairGround stations network needed.. Long time series needed..
LRA (NASA)4 - fairGround stations network needed.. Long time series needed..
LRR (DLR)4 - fairGround stations network needed.. Long time series needed..
LRR (ESA)4 - fairGround stations network needed.. Long time series needed..
LRR (NASA)4 - fairGround stations network needed.. Long time series needed..
RIS4 - fairGround stations network needed.. Long time series needed..
ASC5 - marginalHighly indirect..
IST5 - marginalHighly indirect..
SCA (GRACE)5 - marginalHighly indirect..
STA5 - marginalHighly indirect..
STR (SWARM)5 - marginalHighly indirect..