Literature Survey – Conceptual Models for Southern Hemisphere

The Literature Survey was part of Conceptual Models for Southern Hemisphere project. Centres of Excellence in Argentina, Australia, Brazil and South Africa provided the lists of publications and articles about Southern Hemisphere Conceptual Models. The list may be updated whenever needs arise.

 

Literature Survey – CoE Argentina

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Liebmann et al., 2004: Subseasonal Variations of Rainfall in South America in the Vicinity of the Low-Level Jet East of the Andes and Comparison to Those in the South Atlantic Convergence Zone.paper – PDF – English – Journal of Climate, Vol 17.
Nicolini et al., 2002: Enhanced precipitation over southeastern South America related to strong low-level jet events during austral warm season.paper – PDF – Spanish – Meteorológica, Vol 27.
Salio and Nicolini, 2006: Seasonal characterization of the diurnal cycle of convection frequency over southeastern South America under different low-jet conditions.Paper – PDF – English – Proceedings of 8 ICSHMO, Foz do Iguaçu, Brazil, April 24-28, 2006.
Salio et al., 2007: Mesoscale Convective Systems over Southeastern South America and Their Relationship with the South American Low-Level Jet.paper – PDF -English – DOI10.1175/MWR3305.1 – Monthly Weather Review, Vol 135.
Saulo et al., 2007: Synergism between the Low-Level Jet and Organized Convection at Its Exit Regionpaper – PDF – English – DOI10.1175/MWR3317.1 – Monthly Weather Review, Vol 135.

Literature Survey – CoE Australia

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ENSOCOMET module on ENSOweb – English – http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/navmenu.php?tab=5&page=2.1.0
ENSO Australian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=enso
Indian Ocean DipoleAustralian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=iod
Southern Annular ModeAustralian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=sam
Southern Annular ModeResearch paperweb – English –http://web.bom.gov.au/oeb/ado/dqi/ozone/docs/articles/David%20W%20J%20Thompson.pdf
Madden Julian OscillationCOMET module on the MJOweb – English – http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/print_4.htm#page_1.1.0
Madden Julian OscillationAustralian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=mjo
Australian-Maritime Continent MonsoonCOMET module on the “Australian-Maritime Continent Monsoon”web – English – http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/navmenu.php?tab=4&page=5.4.1
Australian-Maritime Continent MonsoonCOMET module on the “Australian-Maritime Continent Monsoon”web – English – http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/navmenu.php?tab=10&page=7.1.0
Australian-Maritime Continent MonsoonAustralian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=monsoon
Australian-Maritime Continent MonsoonResearch paperweb – English – http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/JAS4034.1
Australian-Maritime Continent MonsoonResearch paperweb – English – http://www.soest.hawaii.edu/MET/Faculty/bwang/bw/paper/190_KajikawaIJC.pdf
Trade Wind FlowAustralian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=trades
Tropical WavesCOMET module “Tropical Waves Conceptual Models”web – English – http://www.meted.ucar.edu/meteoforum/tropwaves/
Tropical WavesCOMET module. Kelvin Waves, Equatorial Rossby Waves, Mixed Rossby Gravity Wavesweb – Englishhttp://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/navmenu.php?tab=5&page=1.2.2http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/navmenu.php?tab=5&page=1.2.3http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/navmenu.php?tab=5&page=1.2.4
Low Pressure Centres – Tropical DepressionsAustralian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=td
Low Pressure Centres – East Coast LowsAustralian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=eastcoastlow
Low Pressure Centres – East Coast LowsAustralian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/nsw/sevwx/facts/ecl.shtml
Low Pressure Centres – Shapiro-Keyser Cyclone ModelConceptual models of synoptic-scale cyclones in the New Zealand – Australia area.Conference paperweb – English – https://ams.confex.com/ams/7ICSHMO/techprogram/paper_59315.htm
Cyclogenesis in the  Eastern Australian – Western Tasman Sea RegionWeather and Forecasting Publicationweb – English – http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0434(1995)010%3C0286%3ATDCSSI%3E2.0.CO%3B2
Southern Ocean CyclonesIn-house Bureau of Meteorology publicationweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/amoj/docs/1972/zillman.pdf
Cold FrontAustralian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=fronts
Central Australian Cold FrontsIn-house Bureau of Meteorology publicationweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/amoj/docs/2000/reeder_hres.pdf
Southerly Buster (Australian)Weather and Forecasting Publicationsweb – Englishhttp://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0434%281999%29014%3C0053%3AMCTWSO%3E2.0.CO%3B2http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0434(2000)015%3C0432%3AROTSBO%3E2.0.CO%3B2
Southerly Buster on the East coast of New ZealandMonthly Weather Review publicationweb – English – http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0493%281991%29119%3C1259%3ASCOTEC%3E2.0.CO%3B2
South Pacific Convergence ZoneInternational Workshop on the SPCZ, Apia Samoa 2010web – English – http://cawcr.gov.au/meetings/fd/SPCZ_Workshop_2010.php
Australian Continental Heat TroughsAustralian Bureau of Meteorology reference (West Coast Trough, Easterly Trough)web – Englishhttp://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=westtroughhttp://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=easterlytrough
Australian Continental Heat Trough (West Coast Trough)Monthly Weather Review publicationweb – English –http://www.meteo.physik.uni-muenchen.de/~roger/Publications/MWR_1992_Kepert_Smith.pdf
North Australian DrylineMonthly Weather Review publicationweb – English – http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/MWR3455.1
Northwest Cloud Band / Upper Level TroughAustralian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – Englishhttp://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=nwcloudbandhttp://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=uppertrough
Blocking Features (Cut-off Lows, Blocking Highs)Australian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – Englishhttp://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=cutofflowhttp://www.bom.gov.au/watl/about-weather-and-climate/australian-climate-influences.shtml?bookmark=blockinghigh
Tropical – midlatitude low transition. Extra tropical transition of Tropical Cyclones.Weather and Forecasting Publicationsweb – English – http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0434%282003%29018%3C1052%3ATETOTC%3E2.0.CO%3B2
Mesoscale Convective ComplexCOMET module on the Mesoscale Convective Complexweb – English – http://www.meted.ucar.edu/mesoprim/severe2/print_version/_p_5.0MCCs.htm
Squall LinesCOMET module on Tropical Squall Lines, on the North Australian Continental Squall Lines, Monsoon Squall Linesweb – Englishhttp://www.meted.ucar.edu/mesoprim/severe2/print_version/_p_3.6SL-TropicalSquallLines.htm#361http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/navmenu.php?tab=10&page=7.3.1.3http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/navmenu.php?tab=10&page=7.3.1.4
North Australian Cloud LineMonthly Weather Review publicationsweb – Englishhttp://cawcr.gov.au/bmrc/clfor/cfstaff/wld/PUBS/nacl.pdfhttp://cawcr.gov.au/bmrc/clfor/cfstaff/wld/PUBS/amex1.pdf
Sumatra Squall LineIEEE publicationweb – English – ftp://ftp.eri.ucsb.edu/pub/users/shi/TRMM/00921411.pdf
Sumatra Squall LineNational Environment Agency Publicationweb – English – http://app2.nea.gov.sg/sumatra_squalls.aspx
Island ConvectionCOMET module on the Tiwi Island Storm (Hector)web – English – http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/navmenu.php?tab=10&page=7.4.1.1
Island ConvectionCOMET module on convection over a mountainous island (Timor)web – English – http://www.meted.ucar.edu/tropical/textbook_2nd_edition/navmenu.php?tab=10&page=7.4.1.2
Island ConvectionJournal of Natural and Applied Sciences publicationweb – English – http://www.publish.csiro.au/?act=view_file&file_id=SP06005.pdf
Fog / low cloud in the TropicsIn-house Bureau of Meteorology publicationsweb – Englishhttp://www.bom.gov.au/amoj/docs/2007/zeschke_hres.pdfhttp://www.bom.gov.au/amoj/docs/2010/zeschke_hres.pdf
Solitary Waves (Bores)Journal of the Atmospheric Science publicationweb – English – http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/JAS3731.1
Sea Breezes on the NSW CoastAustralian Bureau of Meteorology referenceweb – English – http://www.bom.gov.au/nsw/amfs/Sea-Breeze.shtml
Lee TurbulenceAviation Week 2012 recordingweb – English  – http://www.virtuallab.bom.gov.au/archive/aviation-week-2012/
May, P.T. 1995.: The Australian nocturnal jet and diurnal variations of the boundary layer winds over Mt Isa in north-eastern Australia.Australian Nocturnal JetPaper – English – Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 121, 987-1003
Adelaide Gully WindMathematical and Computer Modelling publicationweb – English – http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/089571779500060F
Barrier Jet on the New Zealand South Island west coast.Atmospheric Research publicationweb – English – http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0169809501001429

Literature Survey – CoE Brazil

I – Mesoscale Convective Complexes

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 Maddox, R.A. , 1980: Mesoscale Convective Complexes.

Remarks: This paper addresses the first and the preliminary conceptual model of Mesoscale Convective System (MCC). This conceptual model of life cycle of these systems was based using enhanced, infrared satellite imagery in conjunction with conventional surface and radar data. Are presented numerous examples and a definition and hypothesized life cycle for MCC weather systems.

 paper  – pdf – English – Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 61, 1374–1387.

http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0477%281980%29061%3C1374%3AMCC%3E2.0.CO%3B2

Maddox, R.A., 1983: Large scale meteorological conditions associated with midlatitude, Mesoscale Convective Complexes.

Remarks: At this paper are analysed composited meteorological conditions attending ten Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCC). This analysis reveal a number  of distinctive characteristics and important interactions with a large-scale environment. The objective analysis was based on sounding data from three consecutives data times (00UTC,12UTC e 24 UTC) spanning the life cycle of MCCs studied.

paper –  pdf – English – Mon. Wea. Rev., vol. 111, 7, pp. 1475-1493.

http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0493%281983%29111%3C1475%3ALSMCAW%3E2.0.CO%3B2

Velasco, I. and Fritsch, J.M., 1987: Mesoscale Convective  Complexes in the Americas.

Remarks: The paper documented the existence and climatological features of Mesoscale Convective Complexes over midlatitude South America (south 0f 20°S) and over tropical region (20°N=20°S) at North and South America. Enhanced infrared satellite imagery, conventional surface and sounding data are used to do the analysis.

paper – pdf – English – J. Geophys. Res., 92(D8), 9591–9613, doi:10.1029/JD092iD08p09591.

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/JD092iD08p09591/abstract

Laing, A. G.  and Fritsch. J.M., 2000: The Large-Scale Environments of the Global Populations of Mesoscale Convective Complexes

Remarks: At this work, was analysed the mean genesis environment for each five populations of MCC around the world: Africa, Australia, China, South America and United States. The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) global analyses were utilized as a common database. The study was made for 1981-1987 period.

paper – pdf – English – Mon. Wea. Rev., 128, 2756-2776.

 http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0493%282000%29128%3C2756%3ATLSEOT%3E2.0.CO%3B2

Durkee, J.D. et al., 2009: The Contribution of Mesoscale Convective Complexes to Rainfall across Subtropical South America.

Remarks: This paper uses a database consisting of 330 austral warm-season (October–May) Mesoscale Convective Complexes (MCCs) during 1998–2007 to determine the contribution of MCCs to rainfall across subtropical South America (SSA). A unique precipitation analysis is conducted using Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 version 6 data.

paper – pdf -English – J. Climate, 22, p. 4590-4605.

http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/2009JCLI2858.1

Durkee, J.D. and Mote, T.L., 2009: A climatology of warm-season  Mesoscale Convective Complexes in subtropical South America.

Remarks: The paper extends investigations of mesoscale convective complexes (MCCs) over subtropical South America (SSA) by describing the physical characteristics of MCCs during the austral warm season (October –May) for 1998–2007 in SSA. Within the nine warm seasons, 330 events were documented.

paper – pdf – English – Int. J. Climatology.

http://people.wku.edu/joshua.durkee/publications/Durkee%20and%20Mote%20%5B2009%5D%20A%20climatology%20of%20subtropical%20South%20American%20mesoscale%20convective%20complexes.pdf

II – South Atlantic Convergence Zone

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Carvalho V. ; Jones, C. ; Liebmann, B. 2004 . The South Atlantic Convergence Zone: Persistence, Form, Extreme Precipitation and Relationships with Intraseasonal Activity.Paper – pdf – English – Journal of Climate, v. 17, n. 1, p. 88-108.http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/pdf/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017%3C0088%3ATSACZI%3E2.0.CO%3B2
Carvalho L. , C. Jones and M. A. F. Silva Dias, 2002: Intraseasonal large-scale circulations and mesoscale convective activity in the Tropical South America during the TRMM/LBA campaign.Paper – pdf – English – J. Geophys. Res.ftp://fapespclima.ccst.inpe.br/mcg_archives/lba/lba_archives/PC/PC-404/MDias/RADIOSONDA/FNS/public_r/carvalh7.pdf
Escobar, G. C. J., Carvalho da Costa, I, 2005: Situações meteorológicas associadas a episódios da Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul (ZCAS)Paper – Portuguese – In: IX Congresso Argentino de Meteorología, 2005, Buenos Aires.
Figueroa S. N., P. Satyamurty, and P. L. Da Silva Dias, 1995: Simulations of the Summer Circulation over the South American Region with an Eta Coordinate Model.Paper – pdf – English – J. Atm. Sc., 52, 1573–1584.http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0469(1995)052%3C1573%3ASOTSCO%3E2.0.CO%3B2
Jones, C., and L. M. V. Carvalho, 2002: Active and break phases in the South America monsoon system.Paper – pdf – English, J. Climate, 15, 905–914.http://journals.ametsoc.org/doi/abs/10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015%3C0905%3AAABPIT%3E2.0.CO%3B2
Kodama, Y. M., 1992: Large-scale common features of subtropical precipitation zones (the Baiu frontal zone, the SPCZ, and the SACZ). Part I: Characteristics of subtropical frontal zones.Paper – pdf – English – J. Meteor. Soc. Japan., 70, 813–835.ftp://ftp.biosfera.dea.ufv.br/users/francisca/Franciz/papers/Kodama%20JMSJ%201992.pdf
Kodama, Y.M.,1993: Large-scale common features of subtropical convergence zones (the Baiu frontal zone, the SPCZ, and the SACZ). Part II: Conditions of the circulations for generating STCZs.Paper – pdf – English – J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 71, 581–610.ftp://ftp.biosfera.dea.ufv.br/users/francisca/Franciz/papers/Kodama%20JMSJ%201993.pdf
Sanches, M. B (2002). Análise Sinótica da Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul (ZCAS) Utilizando-se a Técnica de Composição.Master Degree Thesis – pdf – Portuguese – São José dos Campos. Dissertação (Mestrado em Meteorologia) – Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais.Only library – INPE
Satyamurty P. , Chaves R 2006: Estudo das condições regionais associadas a um evento de forte ZCAS em janeiro de 2003.paper – pdf – Portuguesehttp://www.rbmet.org.br/port/revista/revista_artigo.php?id_artigo=119
J. A. Marengo et al., 2010: Review Recent developments on the South American monsoon system.Paper – pdf – Portuguese – Int. J. Climatol. 2010http://coaps.fsu.edu/~vmisra/reviewsam.pdf
Chaves,.R.,Nobre, P. : Interactions between sea surface temperature over the south Atlantic Ocean and the South Atlantic Convergence Zone.paper – pdf – English – Geophys. Res. Lett.v.31,n.3,2004http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1029/2003GL018647/pdf
Mendonça,R.., Bonatti,J.:Estudo da energética modal para episódios de Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul. Parte 1: Analise observacional.paper – pdf – Portuguese – Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia, v.23, n.4, 381 – 403,2008.http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbmet/v23n4/01.pdf
Mendonça,R., Bonatti,J.: Estudo da energética modal para episódios de Zona de Convergência do Atlântico Sul. Parte II: resolução do modelo e da parametrização de convecção.paper – pdf – Portuguese – Revista Brasileira de Meteorologia, v.23, n.4, 381 – 403,2008.http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rbmet/v23n4/02.pdf

 

Literature Survey – CoE South Africa

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Dyson LL and van Heerden J (2002). A model for the identification of tropical weather systems.This research resulted in the model for the identification of tropical weather systems (MITS). MITS has five components based on the atmospheric dynamics important for the development of convective rainfall from tropical systems.

Remarks: Tropical, summer. Describes the appearance of continental tropical weather systems over southern Africa and proposes techniques and variables to forecast rainfall from these systems

Paper –  English – Water SA, 28(3), 249-258.

Hart NCG, Reason CJC and Fauchereau N (2010). Tropical–Extratropical Interactions over Southern Africa: Three Cases of Heavy Summer Season Rainfall.The synoptic evolution of three tropical–extratropical (TE) interactions, each responsible for extreme rainfall events over southern Africa, is discussed in detail. Along with the consideration of previously studied events, common features of these heavy rainfall producing tropical temperate troughs (TTTs) over southern Africa are discussed.

Remarks: Tropical, Extra-tropical interaction, summer. The Tropical temperature trough is a very important rain bearing system over South Africa. This paper describes the appearance and rainfall from three such systems

Paper – English – Monthly Review, 138, 2608–2623.

Blamey RC and Reason CJC (2009). Numerical simulation of a mesoscale convective system over the east coast of South Africa.The MCS is investigated with a non-hydrostatic numerical model (mesoscale model version 3; MM5) to help determine which processes were important in its initiation and development, as well as what factors contributed to the associated heavy rainfall.

Remarks:Extra-tropical, Mesoscale, summer. Mesoscale Convective Complexes are important mesoscale phenomena over South Africa. This paper describes a case study of one such an event and discuss, amongs others, the influence of the Sub-tropical jet.

Paper – English – Tellus (2009), 61A, 17–34.

Stander J (2012). The synoptic circulation patterns and atmospheric variables associated with significant snowfall over South Africa in winter.

Remarks: Extra-tropical, winter. Conditions leading to heavy snowfall over the interior of South Africa are illustrated in a decision tree.

Unpublished M.Sc dissertation, University of Pretoria – English.

Tyson, P.D. & Preston-Whyte, R.A., 2000: The Weather and Climate of Southern Africa.Important surface circulation patterns from South Africa (Atlantic Ocean Highs, Indian Ocean Highs, Cold Fronts and Cut-off lows).

Remarks: Tropical, Extra Tropical, Summer, Winter

Book – English – Second Edition,Oxford University Press, Cape Town. pp. 396.

Taljaard, J.J., Schmitt, W. & van Loon, H., 1961: Frontal analysis with application to the southern hemisphere.Frontal analysis.

Remarks: Extra-tropical, winter.

Newsletter – English – Notos, South African Weather Bureau, Pretoria, 10, 25 – 58.

Taljaard, J.J., 1972: Synoptic Meteorology of the southern hemisphere.Synoptic Meteorology of the southern hemisphere.

Remarks: Tropical, Extra Tropical, Summer, Winter.

Book – English – In: Meteorology of the Southern Hemisphere. C. W. Newton (Editor), Meteorological Monographs, no 35, American Meteorological Society, Boston, pp. 263.

Taljaard, J.J., 1982a: Afknyplae oor Suid – Afrika en omgewing.Cut-off lows over South Africa

Remarks: Extra-tropical, summer, winter

Newsletter – Afrikaans – Newsletter, (396). Pretoria. South Africa, Weather Bureau. 33 – 37.

Taljaard, J.J., 1982b: Cut-off lows and heavy rain over the Republic.Cut-off lows over South Africa

Remarks: Extra-tropical, summer, winter

Newsletter – English – Newsletter, (403). Pretoria. South Africa, Weather Bureau. 155 – 156.

Taljaard, J.J., 1985a: COLs in the South African Region.Cut-off lows over South Africa

Remarks: Extra-tropical, summer, winter

Newsletter – English – South African Weather Bureau, Department of Transport, Technical paper No, 14, May 1985, Pretoria. South Africa. pp. 153.

Taljaard, J.J., 1985b: Empiriese Voorspellingsreëls vir afknyplae oor Suid-Afrika.Empirical forecasting techniques for cut-off lows.

Remarks: Extra-tropical, summer, winter

Newsletter – English – Newsletter, (436). Pretoria. South Africa, Weather Bureau. 105 – 114.

Taljaard, J.J., 1994: Atmospheric circulation systems, synoptic climatology and weather phenomena of South Africa, Part 1.Atmospheric circulation systems.

Remarks: Tropical, Extra Tropical, Summer, Winter

Technical Paper – English

Taljaard, J.J., 1994b: Die ontleding van fronte in Suid-Afrika.Cold front analysis.

Remarks: Extra-tropical,  winter.

Newsletter – Afrikaans – Newsletter, July (544). Pretoria. South Africa, Weather Bureau. 2 – 5.

Taljaard, J.J., 1994c: Die ontleding van fronte in Suid- Afrika II: ’N Gevallestudie in die winter.Cold front case study in winter.

Remarks: Extra-tropical,  winter

Newsletter – Afrikaans – , Newsletter, Aug (545). Pretoria. South Africa, Weather Bureau. 2 – 5.

Van Heerden, J. & Hurry, L., 1995: Southern Africa’s Weather Patterns.Elementary discussion of various weather systems.

Remarks: Tropical, Extra Tropical, Summer, Winter

Book – English – An Introductory Guide, Via Africa Limited, Acacia Books, Pretoria. pp. 95.

Lackmann, G., 2011: Midlatitude Synoptic Meteorology, Dynamics, Analysis and Forecasting.Book on Mid latitude Meteorology.

Remarks: Extra-tropical,  winter

Book – English – American Meteorological Society, United States of America, pp. 345.

Schultz, D.M., 2005: A review of cold fronts with prefrontal troughs and wind shifts.Cold fronts.

Remarks: Extra-tropical,  winter

Paper – English – , Monthly Weather. Review., 133, 2449 – 2472.