BackForwardInstrument:  MSU-GS/A 

Instrument details
Acronym MSU-GS/A
Full name Electro-L Imager for Arctica
Purpose Multi-purpose imagery and wind derivation by tracking clouds and water vapour features
Short description 10 VIS/NIR/MWIR/TIR channels [see detailed characteristics below]
Background Adapted from MSU-GS on Electro-L N1/N2/N3 for the Molniya orbit
Scanning Technique Mechanical, 3-axis stabilised satellite, right-left continuous, top-bottom stepping
Resolution 4.0 km for the IR channels, 1.0 km for the VNIR channels
Coverage / Cycle Field-of-view from the Molniya orbit every 15-30 min.
Mass 106 kg Power 150 W Data Rate 15 Mbps

 

Providing Agency Roscosmos
Instrument Maturity Backed by strong heritage
Utilization Period: ≥2019 to ≥2030
Last update: 2017-03-27
Detailed characteristics
Central wavelength Spectral interval SNR or NEΔT @ specified input
0.57 µm 0.50 - 0.65 µm 200 @ 100 % albedo
0.72 µm 0.65 - 0.80 µm 200 @ 100 % albedo
0.86 µm 0.80 - 0.90 µm 200 @ 100 % albedo
3.75 µm 3.50 - 4.00 µm 0.35 K @ 300 K
6.35 µm 5.70 - 7.00 µm 0.4 K @ 300 K
8.00 µm 7.50 - 8.50 µm 0.1 K @ 300 K
8.70 µm 8.20 - 9.20 µm 0.15 K @ 300 K
9.70 µm 9.20 - 10.2 µm 0.15 K @ 300 K
10.7 µm 10.2 - 11.2 µm 0.15 K @ 300 K
11.7 µm 11.2 - 12.5 µm 0.25 K @ 300 K
Satellites this instrument is flying on

Note: a red tag indicates satellites no longer operational, a green tag indicates operational satellites, a blue tag indicates future satellites

Instrument classification
  • Earth observation instrument
  • Passive optical radiometer or spectrometer
  • Moderate resolution optical imager
Mission objectives
Primary mission objectives
  • Cloud cover
  • Cloud optical depth
  • Cloud top height
  • Cloud top temperature
  • Cloud type
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Tentative Evaluation of Measurements

The following list indicates which measurements can typically be retrieved from this category of instrument. To see a full Gap Analysis by Variable, click on the respective variable.

Note: table can be sorted by clicking on the column headers
VariableRelevance for measuring this variableOperational limitationsExplanation
Biomass5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Index only.. Daylight only.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS and NIR channels. Biomass inferred from NDVI
Cloud cover2 - very highLimited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS, NIR, MWIR and TIR channels
Cloud drop effective radius5 - marginalAt cloud top.. Daylight only.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS, NIR and MWIR channels (for differentiation)
Cloud ice effective radius5 - marginalAt cloud top.. Daylight only.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS, NIR and MWIR channels (for differentiation)
Cloud optical depth4 - fairLow-density cloud only.. Daylight only.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS and NIR channels
Cloud top height3 - highLimited coverage (only above 40° North)TIR channels in window and water vapour band (for emissivity) to estimate cloud top height from its temperature
Cloud top temperature2 - very highLimited coverage (only above 40° North)TIR channels in window and water vapour band (for emissivity)
Cloud type2 - very highLimited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS, NIR, MWIR and TIR channels
Downward short-wave irradiance at Earth surface5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Highly indirect.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS and NIR channels
Downward long-wave irradiance at Earth surface5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Highly indirect.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)MWIR and TIR channels including the water vapour band
Earth surface short-wave bidirectional reflectance5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS and NIR channels with changing solar incidence angles as daylight progresses
Fire fractional cover2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Coarse spatial resolution.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS, MWIR and TIR channels. Frequent sampling (From Molniya orbit) enables early detection
Fire radiative power2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Coarse spatial resolution.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)MWIR and TIR channels. Frequent sampling enables early detection
Fire temperature2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Coarse spatial resolution.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)MWIR and TIR channels. Frequent sampling enables early detection
Land surface temperature4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)MWIR and TIR window channels (high sensitivity to high temperature, cloud impact reduction, water vapour correction)
Leaf Area Index (LAI)5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Daylight only.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS and NIR channels. LAI inferred from NDVI
Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS and NIR channels
O3 (Total column)4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)TIR channel(s). Ozone lines in band around 9.7 micrometers. Frequent sampling enables monitoring diurnal variations
Sea surface temperature2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)MWIR and TIR window channels around 3.7 and 11 micrometers (cloud impact reduction, water vapour correction)
Sea-ice cover3 - highCloud sensitive.VIS, NIR (for contour enhancement), MWIR and TIR channels
Short-wave cloud reflectance4 - fairLimited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS and NIR channels
Snow cover4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Daylight only.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS and NIR channels. Frequent sampling improves probability of cloud-free views
Soil moisture at surface3 - highCloud sensitive.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North). Index only.VIS, NIR, MWIR and TIR channels. Soil moisture inferred from differential brightness and thermal inertia, that are accurately measured by frequent sampling
Specific humidity4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Coarse vertical resolution.. Middle troposphere only.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)TIR channels in the water vapour band around 6.3 micrometers
Integrated Water Vapour (IWV)2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)TIR channels around 6.3 micrometers and in the 11 micrometers split window
Upward short-wave irradiance at TOA4 - fairSpectral interpolation needed.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS and NIR channels with changing solar incidence angles as daylight progresses
Upward long-wave irradiance at TOA5 - marginalSpectral interpolation needed.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)MWIR and TIR channels in windows around 3.7 and 11 micrometers, and in the water vapour band around 6.3 micrometers
Upward long-wave irradiance at Earth surface4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Highly indirect.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)MWIR and TIR channels in windows around 3.7 and 11 micrometers, and in the water vapour band around 6.3 micrometers
Aerosol volcanic ash5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Daylight only.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS and NIR channels
Aerosol volcanic ash (Total column)2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)TIR channel(s). Frequent sampling enables early detection of ash plumes
Wind (horizontal)3 - highCloud or water vapour tracers needed.. Limited coverage (only above 40° North)VIS channel(s) and TIR channels around 6.3 and 11 micrometers. Frequent sampling enables inference from cloud or water vapour pathces motion