BackForwardInstrument:  AVNIR 

Instrument details
Acronym AVNIR
Full name Advanced Visible and Near-Infrared Radiometer
Purpose High-resolution land and vegetation observation
Short description 5-channel VIS/NIR radiometer inclusive one panchromatic [see detailed characteristics below]
Background Evolution of the Multi-spectral Electronic Self-Scanning Radiometer (MESSR) flown on MOS
Scanning Technique Pushbroom, 7000 pixel/line, swath 80 km s.s.p., possible to be pointed cross-track within a swath of 1400 km
Resolution 16 m s.s.p. (8 m the panchromatic channel)
Coverage / Cycle Global coverage in 40 days, in daylight. With strategic pointing, one place can be observed every 2 days
Mass 250 kg Power 300 W Data Rate

 

Providing Agency JAXA
Instrument Maturity Flown on an R&D satellite
Utilization Period: 1996 to 1997-06-30
Last update: 2017-03-27
Detailed characteristics
Central wavelength Spectral interval SNR @ specified albedo
0.46 µm 0.42 - 0.50 µm 200 @ 25 % albedo
0.56 µm 0.52 - 0.60 µm 200 @ 29 % albedo
0.65 µm 0.61 - 0.69 µm 200 @ 41 % albedo
0.825 µm 0.76 - 0.89 µm 200 @ 59 % albedo
Panchromatic 0.52 - 0.69 µm 100 @ 100 % albedo or 5 @ 3.3 % albedo
Satellites this instrument is flying on

Note: a red tag indicates satellites no longer operational, a green tag indicates operational satellites, a blue tag indicates future satellites

Instrument classification
  • Earth observation instrument
  • Passive optical radiometer or spectrometer
  • High resolution optical imager
Mission objectives
Primary mission objectives
  • Biomass
  • Fraction of Absorbed PAR (FAPAR)
  • Fraction of vegetated land
  • Land cover
  • Leaf Area Index (LAI)
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Tentative Evaluation of Measurements

The following list indicates which measurements can typically be retrieved from this category of instrument. To see a full Gap Analysis by Variable, click on the respective variable.

Note: table can be sorted by clicking on the column headers
VariableRelevance for measuring this variableOperational limitationsExplanation
Fraction of vegetated land2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR channels
Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Infrequent coverage.VIS and NIR channels
Aerosol volcanic ash5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Infrequent coverage.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR channels
Aerosol volcanic ash Total Column5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Infrequent coverage.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR channels
Sea-ice cover5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR (for contour enhancement) channels
Cloud cover5 - marginalInfrequent coverage.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR channels
Cloud optical depth4 - fairLow-density cloud only.. Infrequent coverage.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR channels
Upward short-wave irradiance at TOA5 - marginalSpectral interpolation needed.. Information on BRDF needed.. Infrequent coverage.VIS and NIR channels
Short-wave cloud reflectance5 - marginalInfrequent coverage.VIS and NIR channels. Unsuitable dynamic range (saturation)
Earth surface albedo5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Infrequent coverage.VIS channels
Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR)4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Infrequent coverage.VIS channels, range undersampled
Fraction of Absorbed PAR (FAPAR)4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Infrequent coverage.VIS channels including Red at 700 nm
Leaf Area Index (LAI)4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Daylight only.. Infrequent coverage.VIS and NIR channels. LAI inferred from NDVI
Vegetation type3 - highCloud sensitive.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR channels
Biomass5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Index only.. Infrequent coverage.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR channels. Biomass inferred from NDVI
Soil moisture at surface5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Index only.. Infrequent coverage.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR channels. Soil moisture inferred from differential brightness
Snow cover4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Infrequent coverage.. Daylight only.VIS, NIR and panchromatic (higher resolution) channels
Soil type2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR channels
Land cover2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR channels
Land surface topography5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Long time for mapping.. Daylight only.VIS and panchromatic channels with cross-track steering capability for stereoscopy between images from neighbour orbits
Glacier cover4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Long time for mapping.. Daylight only.VIS and NIR channels; and panchromatic channel with high resolution, for glacier boundary detection
Glacier topography5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Long time for mapping.. Daylight only.VIS and panchromatic channels with cross-track steering capability for stereoscopy between images from neighbour orbits
Ice sheet topography5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Long time for mapping.. Daylight only.VIS and panchromatic channels with cross-track steering capability for stereoscopy between images from neighbouring orbits
Fire fractional cover2 - very highCloud sensitive.. Daylight only.VIS channels with high resolution for boundary detection