BackForwardInstrument:  VISSR 

Instrument details
Acronym VISSR
Full name Visible-Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer
Purpose Cloud imagery
Short description 2-channel VIS/IR radiometer: 0.55-0.75 ?m and 10.5-12.6 ?m
Background New development
Scanning Technique W-E continuous scanning (100 rps) by the spinning satellite rotation, N-S by mechanical stepping
Resolution VIS: 0.9 km at s.s.p.; TIR: 6.9 km at s.s.p.;
Coverage / Cycle Full disk each 30 min
Mass 70.2 kg Power Data Rate

 

Providing Agency NOAA
Instrument Maturity Flown on an R&D satellite
Utilization Period: 1974 to 1993-07-01
Last update: 2017-03-27
Detailed characteristics
Satellites this instrument is flying on

Note: a red tag indicates satellites no longer operational, a green tag indicates operational satellites, a blue tag indicates future satellites

Instrument classification
  • Earth observation instrument
  • Passive optical radiometer or spectrometer
  • Moderate resolution optical imager
Mission objectives
Primary mission objectives
  • Cloud cover
  • Cloud top temperature
  • Cloud type
  • Wind (horizontal)
Secondary mission objectives
  • Aerosol volcanic ash Total Column
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Tentative Evaluation of Measurements

The following list indicates which measurements can typically be retrieved from this category of instrument. To see a full Gap Analysis by Variable, click on the respective variable.

Note: table can be sorted by clicking on the column headers
VariableRelevance for measuring this variableOperational limitationsExplanation
Sea surface temperature5 - marginalCloud sensitive.TIR window channel(s) around 11 micrometers .
Wind (horizontal)4 - fairCloud or water vapour tracers needed.VIS channel(s) and TIR channel(s) around 11 micrometers window. Frequent sampling (GEO) enables inference from cloud motion
Aerosol volcanic ash Total Column1 - primaryCloud sensitive.TIR channel(s). Frequent sampling (GEO) enables early detection of ash plumes
Cloud cover4 - fairNo specific limitation.VIS and TIR channels
Cloud top temperature5 - marginalNo specific limitation.TIR window channel(s)
Cloud type4 - fairDaylight only.VIS and TIR channels
Precipitation intensity at surface (liquid or solid)3 - highConvective precipitation dominant.. Calibration by MW needed.TIR channel(s) in the 11 micrometers window. Frequent sampling (GEO) consistent with precipitation temporal variability
Accumulated precipitation (over 24 h)3 - highConvective precipitation dominant.. Calibration by MW needed.TIR channel(s) in the 10-13 micrometers range. Frequent sampling (GEO) is essential for accumulated precipitation
Soil moisture at surface4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Index only.VIS and TIR window channels. Soil moisture inferred from thermal inertia, that is accurately measured by frequent sampling (GEO)
Fire fractional cover4 - fairCloud sensitive.. Coarse spatial resolution.VIS and TIR channels
Fire temperature5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Coarse spatial resolution.TIR channels. Frequent sampling (GEO) enables early detection
Fire radiative power5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Coarse spatial resolution.TIR channels. Frequent sampling (GEO) enables early detection
Snow cover5 - marginalCloud sensitive.. Daylight only.VIS channel(s). Frequent sampling (GEO) improves probability of cloud-free views