BackForwardInstrument:  MIS 

Instrument details
Acronym MIS
Full name Microwave Imager/Sounder
Purpose Multi-purpose imagery with polarimetric channels for sea-surface wind and temperature/humidity sounding channels for improved precipitation
Short description 23 frequencies, 41 channels [see detailed characteristics below]
Background New development
Scanning Technique Conical: 55° zenith angle; swath: 1700 km - Scan rate: 29 scan/min = 13.5 km/scan
Resolution Changing with frequency, consistent with antenna diameters of  1.8 m
Coverage / Cycle Global coverage once/day
Mass 475 kg Power 357 W Data Rate 500 kbps

 

Providing Agency DoD
Instrument Maturity Backed by strong heritage
Utilization Period: 2000 to 2000
Last update: 2014-09-26
Detailed characteristics
Central frequency (GHz) Bandwidth (MHz) Polarisations (*) NEΔT IFOV Pixel
6.3505 190 V, H 0.619 K 38x68 km 17.7x13.5 km
6.6505 190 V, H 0.619 K 38x68 km 17.7x13.5 km
7.0395 190 V, H 0.619 K 38x68 km 17.7x13.5 km
7.3280 190 V, H 0.619 K 38x68 km 17.7x13.5 km
10.6350 130 V, H, P, M 0.605 K 24x45 km 12.7x13.5 km
18.7000 200 V, H 0.770 K 15x23 km 8.2x13.5 km
19.3500 350 V, H, P, M, L, R 0.594 K 15x23 km 8.2x13.5 km
23.8000 400 V, H 0.572 K 15x23 km 7.5x13.5 km
36.5000 1000 V, H, P, M 0.580 K 10x16 km 4.6x13.5 km
50.3000 200 H 1.830 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
52.8000 400 H 1.310 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
53.5960 400 H 1.310 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
54.4000 400 H 1.310 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
55.5000 400 H 1.310 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
57.2903 335 - 1.426 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
59.4000 250 - 1.642 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
60.3712 57.6 - 3.380 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
60.5088 44.8 - 3.830 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
89.3046 4000 V, H 0.543 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
165 ± 0.8 1400 H 1.952 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
183.31 ± 7.0 3000 H 1.768 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
183.31 ± 3.0 2000 H 2.157 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km
183.31 ± 1.0 1000 H 3.032 K 8x15 km 3.3x13.5 km

(*)   Polarisations: H = horizontal, V = vertical, P = + 45°, M = - 45°, L = left-hand circular, R = right-hand circular

Satellites this instrument is flying on

Note: a red tag indicates satellites no longer operational, a green tag indicates operational satellites, a blue tag indicates future satellites

Instrument classification
  • Earth observation instrument
  • Passive microwave radiometer
  • Conical scanning microwave radiometer
Mission objectives
Primary mission objectives
  • Precipitation intensity at surface (liquid or solid)
  • Sea surface temperature
  • Sea-ice cover
  • Soil moisture at surface
  • Wind speed over the surface (horizontal)
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Tentative Evaluation of Measurements

The following list indicates which measurements can typically be retrieved from this category of instrument. To see a full Gap Analysis by Variable, click on the respective variable.

Note: table can be sorted by clicking on the column headers
VariableRelevance for measuring this variableOperational limitationsExplanation
Accumulated precipitation (over 24 h)3 - highPoor time sampling.. Time sampling to be interpolated by GEO.MW channels around 10, 19, 23, 37 and 90 GHz and in 54 and 183 GHz bands, with high spatial resolution
Atmospheric temperature3 - highCoarse vertical resolution.Many MW channels in the 54 GHz band. Nearly all-weather sounding
Biomass4 - fairIndex only.. Coarse spatial resolution.Derived from differential effect of vegetation across MW frequencies around 7, 10 and 19 GHz
Cloud drop effective radius4 - fairNo specific limitation.MW channels around 37 and 90 GHz, and in bands 54 and 183 GHz
Cloud ice4 - fairNo specific limitation.MW channels around 37 and 90 GHz, and in bands 54 and 183 GHz
Cloud ice (total column)3 - highNo specific limitation.MW channels around 37 and 90 GHz, and in bands 54 and 183 GHz
Cloud ice effective radius4 - fairNo specific limitation.MW channels around 37 and 90 GHz, and in bands 54 and 183 GHz
Cloud liquid water (CLW)3 - highNo specific limitation.MW channels around 37 and 90 GHz, and in bands 54 and 183 GHz
Cloud liquid water (CLW) total column2 - very highNo specific limitation.MW channels around 37 and 90 GHz, and in bands 54 and 183 GHz
Downward long-wave irradiance at Earth surface5 - marginalHighly indirect.MW channels in bands 54 and 183 GHz to account for downward cloud radiation
Freezing level height in clouds3 - highNo specific limitation.MW channels in the 54 GHz band. Inference from the temperature profile
Land surface temperature3 - highCoarse spatial resolution.MW channels with more frequencies around 7 and 10 GHz to reduce sensitivity to radio-frequency interferences
Long-wave Earth surface emissivity3 - highLong time series needed.MW channels around 7, 10, 19, 37 and 90 GHz. Emissivity across this MW range inferred by statistical analysis
Melting layer depth in clouds3 - highNo specific limitation.MW channels in the 54 GHz band. Inference from the temperature profile
Precipitation intensity at surface (liquid or solid)1 - primaryNo specific limitation.MW channels around 10, 19, 23, 37 and 90 GHz, and in bands 54 and 183 GHz (for atmospheric structure). To cover sea and land, heavy and light precipitation. High spatial resolution consistent with the scale of precipitation
Sea surface temperature2 - very highNo specific limitation.MW channels with more frequencies around 7 and 10 GHz to reduce sensitivity to radio-frequency interferences
Sea-ice cover1 - primaryNo specific limitation.MW channels around 7, 10, 19, 37 and 90 GHz, with high spatial resolution for accurate contour detection
Sea-ice type4 - fairNo specific limitation.MW channels around 10, 19, 37 and 90 GHz. Type interpreted as age/roughness
Snow cover2 - very highCoarse spatial resolution.MW channels around 19, 37 and 90 GHz. Higher frequencies less sensitive to emissivity from ground under snow . High resolution closer to the scale of snow fields
Snow status (wet/dry)2 - very highCoarse spatial resolution.MW channels around 19, 37 and 90 GHz. Higher frequencies less sensitive to emissivity from ground under snow. High resolution closer to the scale of snow fields
Snow water equivalent3 - highCoarse spatial resolution.. Ground stations network needed.MW channels around 19, 37 and 90 GHz. Higher frequencies less sensitive to emissivity from ground under snow. High resolution closer to the scale of snow fields
Soil moisture (in the roots region)4 - fairCoarse spatial resolution.. Affected by vegetation.MW channels around 7 GHz. Assimilation process required
Soil moisture at surface3 - highCoarse spatial resolution.. Affected by vegetation.MW channels around 7 and 10 GHz
Specific humidity4 - fairCoarse vertical resolution.MW channels in the 183 GHz band, and 54 GHz for temperature and liquid water corrections
Integrated Water Vapour (IWV)1 - primaryNo specific limitation.Use of water vapour band around 23 GHz with dual polarisation. High resolution useful for tomography
Upward long-wave irradiance at Earth surface4 - fairHighly indirect.MW channels is the 54 and 183 GHz bands to infer the impact of clouds on the upward LW radiation
Wind speed over the surface (horizontal)2 - very highOver sea only.MW channels around 7, 10, 19 and 37 GHz
Wind vector over the surface (horizontal)3 - highOver sea only.MW channels for 3 or 4 Stokes parameters at frequencies around 10, 19 and 37 GHz